Fruit ofZiziphus jujubaMill. are used as functional foods for centuries due to their rich content and bioactivities. Althoughin vitroantioxidant and hypoglycaemic activity of jujube fruit were investigated previously, the bioavailability phenomenon has been disregarded so far. For this study, 80% ethanol extract ofZiziphus jujubafruit (ZJE) was investigated for itsin vitrohypoglycaemic and antioxidant potentials, before and after the interaction with simulated human digestion. DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP, CUPRAC, and TOAC assays were used for this purpose. Moreover, inhibition potentials ofα-amylase andα-glucosidase enzymes and advanced glycation end products (AGE) were examined for the hypoglycaemic effect. Results indicated that ZJE showed significant antioxidant and dose dependent enzyme and AGE inhibition activity. Nonetheless, subsequent to simulated human digestionin vitrobioactivities of ZJE were significantly lowered for bioavailable fraction (IN). Protocatechuic acid (PA) (major phenolic compound of the fruit) contents of the extract and fractions were measured via HPTLC for more accurate understanding of the effects of human digestion and bioavailability profile.
To determine the most effective preservation method for MiBa (a traditional Chinese rice product), MiBa treated with 75% alcohol, 75% alcohol + inhibitor, ozone treatment; untreated (control); and raw rice were subjected to 16S rRNA gene and ITS three-generation sequencing by High-throughput Sequencing Technology. According to the results the preservation effects of different treatment methods ranked as follows: ozone treatment >75% alcohol treatment >75% alcohol+inhibitor > control. Bacterial composition analysis showed that the bacterial community on the surface of MiBa treated with ozone was dominated by generaLeuconostocandSerratia.The fungal community consisted mainly ofAspergillusandAlternaria. In summary, ozone treatment proved to be the most effective in inhibiting microbial contamination during the storage of MiBa, effectively extending its shelf life.
The goal of this work is the hydraulic capacity assessment of selected combined sewer systems in the city of Trnava. The selected sewer system constitutes from 160 sections 3.3 km long. Hydraulic capacity assessment will test sewer system, created in SeWaCAD program with design rainfall events with varied frequencies. The result of assessment showed that hydraulic capacity of combined sewer system did not meet requirements to properly work. Malfunctioning sewer pipelines must be changed. Design rain with frequency at least one in two years will be used as restoration model.
In this research, the impacts of various enzymes (phospholipase-A2(0.3% v/v), lipase (0.03% w/v), and protease (0.5% w/v)) on the physico-chemical and functional characteristics of the treated egg white protein (EWP) were determined. The pH, turbidity, colour (L*, a*, b*, and ∆E*), gas concentrations in the package, relative foaming capacity (RFC), and foaming stability were analysed during storage at 4 °C. The protease (1,000 ± 60.82) and lipase (790 ± 41.63) increased RFC values significantly (control: 616 ± 36.05) on the initial day. The enzymes significantly decreased (P< 0.05) the turbidity values from 0.46 ± 0.10 (control) to –0.30 ± 0.05 (lipase) and –0.35 ± 0.03 (protease), whereas it was increased by phospholipase-A2(0.53 ± 0.06). This research points out the efficacy of the enzymes in improving functionality of EWP. In conclusion, treatment with protease enzyme provided the best RFC values at day 27. However, utilisation of protease led to decrease in L* and b* values.
Online interventions for problem gambling are increasingly popular, but not everyone benefits from them. We describe 12 years of real-world data from an online intervention for gambling problems and aim to find out the extent to which depression, alcohol use, and sense of financial control influence the effectiveness of the program.
We analyzed treatment effectiveness and moderators in the Finnish “Peli Poikki” program (2007–2018)—an 8-week cognitive behavioral therapy and follow-up program for problem gambling. Participants were Finnish-speaking adults over 18 years of age (N= 2011, 66.9% males). We measured the self-reported level of problem gambling, depression, alcohol use, and sense of financial control across four treatment phases (baseline, post-treatment, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up), as well as the presence of gambling debt, psychological and physiological health, years suffered from gambling problems, and demographic variables.
Participation grew across years with retention rates of 55%, 30%, and 19% for post-treatment and the two follow-ups, respectively. The average problem gambling scores declined significantly following treatment and remained low throughout the follow-ups. However, this decline (the beneficial treatment effect) was reversed after the follow-ups for those with high depression scores and those who felt they had no control over their finances.
Discussion and Conclusions
的Peli Poikki程序运转良好的年ne intervention but less effective in the long term for participants with persisting symptoms of depression or without a sense of financial control. More attention is needed to screen and direct people with comorbidities to the appropriate services.
Apart from a few shorter papers inspired by the nomination of a new crime prohibiting the organization of ‘pyramid games’ by the Hungarian Criminal Code in 1996, the topic of ‘pyramid and Ponzi schemes’ remained of little interest to Hungarian legal scholars. Internationally, the topic has garnered increased attention due to the grave socio-economic effects of ever newer scheme-collapses, from the high-profile American Madoff (2009) to the myriad less-known cases from emerging systems like the fiasco of the Albanian pyramid schemes in the mid-1990s, pyramid schemes camouflaged as multi-level marketing (MLM) ventures, or their online versions more recently. Comparative works that would juxtapose the pertaining laws and experiences of the United States with those of Hungary are lacking.
To fill the void, this article contrasts a select number of differing regulatory approaches. At one end of the spectrum is the United States (US), which, instead of passing sector-specific laws, mobilized and adapted the enforcement tools of all utilizable branches of law to combat the schemes. While in the US this has been uniquely primed by securities laws, in Hungary the task remains limited to what criminal law and the criminal justice system could offer, coupled with the dominantlyad hocreactions of the Hungarian Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Development of tests to distinguish legitimate Multi-Level Marketing (MLM) companies from pyramid schemes disguised as such represents the only segment where significant rapprochement occurred between the US, the European Union (EU) and therefore also Hungary.
For contrast and illustration of the other end of the spectrum, the systems that were forced to react to risks corollary to the schemes by enacting sector-specific laws, the most recent regulatory reactions of India, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka had to be resorted to. As the latter two imposed complete bans on all MLMs, it is only the Indian 2019 comprehensive act that attempts to combat the schemes and akin forms of financial fraud relying on a new comprehensive regulatory model.
The Philippines is an interesting mixture made of local and transplants that readily proves that the solutions of the most developed US system could successfully be transplanted into a significantly different socio-economic environment.
Weather conditions greatly affect tick population densities and activity, on which depends the occurrence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs). During the spring months from 2017 to 2019, 1,357 specimens ofIxodes ricinusticks were collected at 9 localities in the vicinity of Novi Sad (Serbia). The number of collected ticks varied considerably among the different sampling sites and years. Also, a statistically significant difference was found between months and observed number of ticks for each stadium. By statistical analysis of tick activity depending on microclimatic conditions, a positive and statistically significant relationship between temperature and the number of ticks for each life stage was established, but not for humidity. Dew had a statistically significant impact only on nymphs but not on adults. The infection rate ofBorrelia burgdorferis.l. was the highest in March (46.5–51.2%) and the lowest in May (32.9–34.8%). The highest prevalence was detected in males and the lowest in nymphs. Since there is a positive and statistically significant correlation between tick number and prevalence, the ability to provide weather-based predictions of the seasonal patterns of current tick activity is important for the risk assessment of TBDs such as Lyme borreliosis.
Guignardia bidwellii北美土著,是一个重大的pathogen of grapes long known in Hungary, infecting only the growing green parts of the vine (leaves, petioles, shoots, and bunches). In the absence of adequate plant protection and extreme weather conditions such as a predominantly humid, warm year, black rot of grapes can be expected. The pathogen can cause high yield losses due to grape rot and reduce wine quality if the infection is severe.
The evolution of certain biogenic amine compounds were investigated under the influence of grape black rot. The results obtained showed that they were present in low concentrations from an oenological point of view. Polyphenol composition was consistent with the literature, blackening affected mainly the concentration of catechin. Black rot fungus does not produce β-glucosidase enzyme. In terms of resveratrol content, black rot has no particular effect. However, likeBotrytis cinerea, it produces glycerol and, proportionally, gluconic acid in lower concentrations.
它可以得出的结论是,黑色腐烂的葡萄not cause health problems when introduced into wine processing.